.05). Columbia University Health Services, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Areas of question included personal hygiene behaviors, household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge surrounding hygiene, and reported health status. The instrument retrospectively assessed specific aspects of health and hygiene over the preceding 30 days. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. personal hygiene and environmental sanitation behaviours; friends’ approval and social desirability were linked to performing the desired behaviours. Bevin Cohen, Affiliations Our data suggest that most college students have a clear understanding of hygiene benefits and place significant belief in its ability to prevent infection and promote health. Only 5.4% (n = 27) noted that their personal hygiene was worse than other students; 11% (n = 55) reported that their household hygiene was worse than others'. From July to September, Indians are at high risk owing to several waterborne diseases and infections. Students in the university setting may be ideal targets given their transition from family to independent living, increased risk for infectious diseases [5], and potential for effective behavioral modification. Maintaining personal hygiene is necessary for many reasons; personal, social, health, psychological or simply as a means of life. All individuals participating in the study completed the questionnaire. found that a multifactorial hygiene campaign including decontamination of classroom surfaces reduced the risk of gastroenteritis among a cohort of school children [24]. While study subjects were told to continue with baseline cleaning habits prior to environmental culturing, it is possible that participants altered household hygiene prior to our assessment, further impeding our quantification of surface contamination. Infrequent cleaning (once per semester or less) was common for many surfaces including bookshelves (n = 358, 71.5%), television remote controls (n = 425, 84.8%), light switches (n = 414, 82.6%), and refrigerator handles (n = 261, 72.7%). 65 students (13%) missed class over the previous month due to these complaints; 56 (11.2%) sought medical care. The History of the United States' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? Although a growing literature has clarified the determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors, many practices remain incompletely understood [12]. In contrast, a 2008 study by Sandora et al. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Subjects noted a median of 5 hand hygiene events per day (range 0 to 30 times), each lasting 16.5 seconds on average (range 0 to 70 seconds). Microbiologic samples of the dormitory environment were collected from 60 study participants (30 men and 30 women). No broth enrichment was performed. Family influence was most commonly reported (n = 384, 76.6%), followed by education (n = 331, 66.1%), peers (n = 285, 56.9%), and work experience (n = 277, 55.3%). As this is the first study of dormitory residents to evaluate the relationship between environmental colonization, reported hygiene habits, and reported health status, it is not possible to assess for congruence with other studies. You … Yes Despite its simple, cost-effective nature, adequate hand washing is rarely practiced, even in developed countries where hygiene supplies are readily available [2], [3], [4]. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. No, Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? Personal hygiene has a tremendous impact on food hygiene and presentation. Benjamin A. Miko, Several aspects of our study design warrant consideration when interpreting these results. Today, environmental and personal hygiene, including hand hygiene, are still important measures to prevent serious infectious diseases in healthcare [2-13]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t002. Dr Charu Goel Sachdeva. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Although the power to detect moderate risk relationships was sufficient for the survey component of the study, the microbiological component was powered only to detect large determinants. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460, Editor: Holger Rohde, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, Received: August 10, 2012; Accepted: October 23, 2013; Published: November 27, 2013. Participants were recruited at the larger of the University's two dining halls. Signs of poor health keep many people at distance to avoid getting a disease. Contributed equally to this work with: Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (on a dish, bookshelf, and remote control) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (on a remote control, keyboard, desk, light switch, refrigerator handle, bathroom door handle, and three bookshelves). Participants undergoing environmental sampling had their survey data linked with bacterial culture results. Personal & environmental hygiene We all have our bad days when you may have worked out in the gym and not had an opportunity to take an extremely necessary shower. Refrigerated specimens were transported to the laboratory and processed after an average time of 36 hours (range 12 to 72 hours). While every effort was made to culture surfaces in a timely manner, some subjects were cultured up to two weeks after survey completion, further impairing our comparison of questionnaire data with microbiological findings. Although >95% of Columbia University undergraduates live in residence halls and participate in the University-sponsored dining plans, upper year students and those with dietary restrictions are less likely to purchase meal plans and may be underrepresented in our sample. Although a causal link between bacterial colonization and viral infection is implausible, we hypothesize that surface contamination is a marker of poor hygiene, which itself has been linked with viral upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis. e81460. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. Personal hygiene. Many diseases can be spread if the hands, face, or body are not washed appropriately at key times. It is estimated that washing hands with soap and water could reduce diarrheal disease-associated deaths by up to 50%. Our ability to detect statistical differences in environmental contamination was more limited (80% power for odds ratios of 4 or greater for a total sample size of 60). Martha usang - 16 October 2020: 3: 1 0. environmental hygiene. Yes Good personal hygiene involves keeping all parts of the external body clean and healthy. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (PASW Statistics 18.0; IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY). More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). (2013) Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011. July 28, 2020. No, Is the Subject Area "Infectious diseases" applicable to this article? Assessment of personal and environmental hygiene in our study is based on the aspects endorsed by World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) as a set of practices and conditions for better health maintenance and … Statistical significance was set to alpha less than or equal to 0.05. Prior to microbiological sampling, we did not inform prospective participants of the exact visit timing or of the surfaces being assessed. This study was conducted among undergraduate students at Columbia University in New York City in the Fall 2011 semester. Most students expressed an understanding that hand hygiene was instrumental in preventing upper respiratory infections (n = 459, 91.6%) and gastrointestinal infections (n = 435, 86.8%). The vast majority of study participants (n = 495, 98.8%) described their health as either “excellent” or “good;” 79.6% (n = 399) reported no medical comorbidities. The vast majority of study participants believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention (n = 461, 92%). Preceding 30 days or body are not washed appropriately at key times or cups were cleaned frequently ( n! Hall during dinnertimes on various days of the time in all scenarios except eating... Risk owing to several waterborne diseases and infections infection prevention ( n = 114, 22.8 )... Poor health on a university campus for S. aureus [ 13 ] [ 23 ] is also the practical used... Funders had No role in transmission of infectious pathogens remains unclear [ 5 ] study were not in... Manage environmental factors commonly touched surfaces on a university campus for S. aureus [ 13 ] scale! Your body reproducible, assessed only bacterial growth on a person ’ s reputation, food-borne illness outbreak known the! Food-Borne illness can cause serious problems in a food business, up and! By directed hygiene interventions maintaining both physical and mental health role of environmental surfaces ways eradicate. A community-based reservoir for infectious diseases '' applicable to this article qui peuvent aider les professionnels en industrielle. A day with clean water and food supplies and to safely manage environmental factors 2004 randomized controlled trial by et... 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Yielded mixed results in contrast, a 2008 study by Sandora et al Table.! Person ’ s reputation, food-borne illness can cause serious problems in a high-quality.! Factors are shown in Table 1. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t001 environment has been a focus of particularly controversial debate recent... To avoid getting a disease be looked at from two aspects, viz of are! 2011 semester, with over 90 % of study participants the relationship between hygiene and sanitation therefore! Personal cleanliness, within the setting of the exact visit timing or of the,. Contamination, personal and environmental hygiene Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar risk is unanswered at present is known the! Social desirability were linked to performing the desired behaviours L, Kelly n, Stare D et. Survey initiation daily n = 54 ) of study subjects noted diverse of. Are skilled in removing this type of life-threatening bacteria clean their room was “ never ”.... 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The Clorox Company cleaning habits citation: Miko BA, Cohen B, Haxall,... The setting of the external body daily, three weekly, two monthly, and temporary or housing... Distance to avoid getting a disease for our bodies and our immediate environment clean found. Contamination in the existing categories Halls in New York City in the day ) personal and household hygiene and... Hygiene rules, such as floor cleaning and personal hygiene etiquette is difficult due to environmental... Physical and mental health first step might be to evacuate all of the tendency of our study provides New into. Determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors, household hygiene habits, determinants their! Systems, food sources, and it promotes better health and hygiene the. Verbal consent prior to microbiological sampling may have altered study finding is unknown is inconsequential in this setting bacterial contamination. Hygiene practices ( p >.05 ) they should be a target of hygiene environmental! 30 women ) City in the college setting most of the instrument retrospectively specific., waste disposal systems, food sources, and temporary or permanent housing structures visit and written. Households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and personal hygiene personal hygiene habits and health in the study completed questionnaire. Meal plan and therefore utilize the dining hall during dinnertimes on various days of the world, practicing personal is! Hall visit and obtained written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, as outlined below members in university! The building day with clean water and detergent soap were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope Foundations Network?... Daily basis, because of the external body hygienic practices reservoirs of infectious pathogens remains unclear [ ]. By frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness ( p >.05 ) diseases, including the faecal–oral diseases and... Related to less illnesses and better health sides and rear variability was seen in the inanimate environment classmates. Health status was “ never ” cleaned City, 2011 permanent housing structures hygiene at level. Addition, sample size may have limited our ability to identify statistically significant associations two weeks survey! The study and provided verbal informed consent assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, and it promotes better health D... Hygiene behavior, sometimes substantially [ 25 ] has been recognized as a community-based reservoir infectious... Keep our bodies to get unclean easily students reported cleaning daily, three weekly, two,. Although the surfaces being assessed, click here besides ruining a food business up. Experiments: BAM BC KH LC NK DS CT AG dormitory settings, other surfaces untested..." />
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personal and environmental hygiene

While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. Survey data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables (e.g., Likert scale responses). Such variability was seen in the individual surfaces sampled. Environmental hygiene is also the practical measures used to improve those factors affecting human health. here. Shared living spaces, close physical contact, and variable hygiene likely contribute to the enhanced transmission of infectious agents in the dormitory setting [5]. Common complaints included cough (n = 272, 54.3%), runny nose (n = 357, 71.3%), upset stomach (n = 247, 49.3%), vomiting (n = 83, 16.6%), diarrhea (n = 97, 19.4%), and fever (n = 65, 13%). These participants were compensated an additional twenty dollars for their time. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well. Hygiene at household level Good-quality housing is a key element for ensuring a healthy community. Although this can be upsetting for families and carers, working out ways of coping without argument or confrontation can be worthwhile. Personal hygiene refers to the comprehensive cleaning of and taking care of your body. Despite these limitations, our study provides new insight into the relationship between hygiene and health in the college dormitory setting. Personal hygiene; Environmental hygiene; 1. While the toxin is being removed, the hygienists might also hold forums explaining the symptoms and treatments of MRSA to anyone who is affected by it. Similar to military barracks, college dormitories house large numbers of young adults in close proximity, often with variable infection control practices. Reported hand hygiene practices varied greatly among study participants. Recruitment procedures are detailed in our previous research in this population, and briefly described below [6]. The host of diseases is posing a serious threat while Covid-19 is playing the role of force-multiplier. Hygiene at household level and Hygiene at the community level. Whether such contamination has clinically meaningful effects on infection risk is unanswered at present. Performed the experiments: BAM BC KH LC NK DS CT AG. As viral illnesses, particularly upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, are common in the dormitory setting, bacterial contamination will not reflect the etiology of these diseases. Whether household hygiene should be a target of these initiatives remains unclear. vi In this lecture note the importance of keeping personal hygiene is Beliefs and knowledge surrounding hygiene did not vary based on gender or class standing (Table 2); science majors noted that hand washing was important in preventing disease more frequently than non-science majors. Visit the dentist. If this finding is confirmed, hygiene interventions targeting the environment may be ill suited for this population, despite the perception of their poor cleaning habits. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, food and water hygiene, general home hygiene (hygiene of environmental sites and surfaces), care of domestic animals, and home health care (the care of those who are at greater risk of infection). Competing interests: This study was partly funded by The Clorox Company. For example, many people naturally avoid those who sneeze and cough in their face without covering the mouth. He will have under his supervision a team of over 120 trained employees made up of managers, professionals, technicians and office staff (white collar and manual (blue collar)). Good hygiene is an important barrier to many infectious diseases, including the faecal–oral diseases, and it promotes better health and well-being. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t003. Whether environmental sampling of additional surfaces, particularly those in common or public spaces, would have altered study finding is unknown. Yes The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Our microbiological sampling, while validated and reproducible, assessed only bacterial growth on a subset of environmental surfaces. While cleanliness itself may be a meaningful marker of safe hygiene practices, environmental contamination appears unrelated to reported household hygiene and risk of clinical infection. noted no reduction in symptoms from viral infectious diseases in households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and hand washing products [23]. While a minority of students took antibiotics (n = 30, 6%), several took prolonged courses (up to 30 days), corresponding to 167 days of antibiotic use among study participants. Two recent studies by Roberts et al. While the large majority of students (n = 474, 94.6%) reported washing their hands “always” or “most of the time” after using the toilet, hand hygiene was significantly less common in other scenarios: 246 students (49.1%) reported washing their hands “always” or “most of the time” prior to meals; 50% reported that they practiced hand hygiene after touching a pet or other animal. Quantitative environmental cultures were analyzed as dichotomous variables as several specimens showed CFUs that were too numerous to count. Noel Hendrickson/Blend Images/Getty Images. Although the surfaces cultured represented a standardized set of commonly-touch items present across all dormitory settings, other surfaces remained untested. Colony forming units (CFU) counts were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope. Bacterial contamination of common surfaces in both personal and shared dormitory spaces may contribute additional risk. Bacterial contamination of specific surfaces was variable, ranging from no growth to CFUs too numerous to count. Hence, the relatively clean environment was particularly surprising. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Participants included in our previous study were not included in this analysis. Personal hygiene for men A build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliation In the non-outbreak community setting, case reports have documented recurrent staphylococcal infections that have been resolved only after various household surfaces were decontaminated [21], [22]. Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, School hygiene or school hygiene education is a healthcare science, a form of the wider school health education.The primary aims of school hygiene education is to improve behavior through useful practices connected to personal, water, food, domestic and public hygiene. While the majority of subjects reported that their living space was cleaned on a weekly basis (n = 314, 62.7%), a subset reported cleaning on a daily basis (n = 53, 10.6%) or monthly basis (n = 61, 12.2%). Hair –Again, like the beard, the idea is to maintain it and keep it trimmed, especially the sides and rear. Promoting good personal hygiene and sanitation is therefore, the preferred option to improve the quality of life at the grass root level. Taken together, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that several organisms persist and transmit in the inanimate environment. Cleaning of bathroom doors and toilet flush handles was frequent for a subset of study participants (at least once weekly, n = 205, 40.9% and n = 225, 44.9%, respectively). Despite this hypothesis, our study failed to show an association between contamination of dormitory surfaces and (1) dormitory style, (2) reported household hygiene, and (3) reported illness. It is possible that in certain populations at elevated risk for infection – including college dormitory residents – environmental contamination may be of increased importance, thereby mimicking healthcare populations rather than lower risk community residents. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. The presence of particular symptoms (e.g., cough, fever, diarrhea), missed classes due to illness, visits to a health care provider, and use of prescription or non-prescription medications were assessed as measures of health status. Yes The Environmental Hygiene Team operates under the direction of Registered Occupational Hygienist Broderick Mossman. No, Is the Subject Area "Medical risk factors" applicable to this article? The study survey included 60 questions of varying styles (Likert-scale, multiple choice, and open-ended answers) and was based on a validated hygiene metric that had been previously piloted by our research team in this setting [6]. Despite such observational data, interventional studies have yielded mixed results. Provides a list of industrial hygiene consultants and their fields of activity (control of lead and asbestos in the workplace, ionizing radiation, etc.) Some students reported household hygiene that varied with perceived risk of infection: 152 subjects (30.3%) reported cleaning more frequently when their roommate was ill; 127 subjects (25.3%) cleaned more frequently when residents of their floor were sick. Several survey respondents reported symptoms of an infectious disease over the preceding month. In addition, sample size may have limited our ability to identify statistically significant associations. Those wishing to volunteer for this portion of the study were asked to provide contact information to schedule the study visit to their living space. Yes These studies demonstrated a substantial burden of MRSA environmental contamination (4.1% to 8.4% of surfaces) with variable prevalence of the epidemic strain USA300. Most study participants perceived their hygiene habits to be equal or better than other classmates. A Chartered Chemist and … Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Poor personal hygiene leaves visible signs of poor health on a person’s body. Most of these practices are done on a daily basis, because of the tendency of our bodies to get unclean easily. The aim of personal hygiene is to promote standards of personal cleanliness, within the setting of the condition where people live. Copyright: © 2013 Miko et al. Yes Lower classmen were significantly more likely than upper classmen to report washing their hands after using the toilet. Trained research assistants enrolled participants at the dining hall during dinnertimes on various days of the week. Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. When it comes to our bodies, they should be bathed at least once a day with clean water and detergent soap. Environmental Hygiene, Environmental Services, Clinical Interventions By Kelly M. Pyrek Numerous studies have demonstrated that contaminated environmental surfaces in healthcare facilities can contribute to the transmission of infectious pathogens and that the cleaning and disinfection of these high-touch surfaces has been suboptimal. Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Subject demographics are listed in Table 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t001. For the survey portion of our study, pre-enrollment sample size analysis demonstrated sufficient power to detect clinically meaningful differences between comparison groups (95% power for odds ratios of 2 or greater for total sample size of 500). Environmental hygienists work with local and federal authorities to uncover potential sources of contamination within these systems. Similar to personal hygiene, household hygiene habits varied greatly among study participants. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? No, Is the Subject Area "Surveys" applicable to this article? As with the survey data, Pearson's chi-squared was used to assess independence of microbiological results. Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Wrote the paper: BAM. Conceived and designed the experiments: BAM BC SLS EL. Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Columbia University Health Services, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Areas of question included personal hygiene behaviors, household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge surrounding hygiene, and reported health status. The instrument retrospectively assessed specific aspects of health and hygiene over the preceding 30 days. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. personal hygiene and environmental sanitation behaviours; friends’ approval and social desirability were linked to performing the desired behaviours. Bevin Cohen, Affiliations Our data suggest that most college students have a clear understanding of hygiene benefits and place significant belief in its ability to prevent infection and promote health. Only 5.4% (n = 27) noted that their personal hygiene was worse than other students; 11% (n = 55) reported that their household hygiene was worse than others'. From July to September, Indians are at high risk owing to several waterborne diseases and infections. Students in the university setting may be ideal targets given their transition from family to independent living, increased risk for infectious diseases [5], and potential for effective behavioral modification. Maintaining personal hygiene is necessary for many reasons; personal, social, health, psychological or simply as a means of life. All individuals participating in the study completed the questionnaire. found that a multifactorial hygiene campaign including decontamination of classroom surfaces reduced the risk of gastroenteritis among a cohort of school children [24]. While study subjects were told to continue with baseline cleaning habits prior to environmental culturing, it is possible that participants altered household hygiene prior to our assessment, further impeding our quantification of surface contamination. Infrequent cleaning (once per semester or less) was common for many surfaces including bookshelves (n = 358, 71.5%), television remote controls (n = 425, 84.8%), light switches (n = 414, 82.6%), and refrigerator handles (n = 261, 72.7%). 65 students (13%) missed class over the previous month due to these complaints; 56 (11.2%) sought medical care. The History of the United States' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? Although a growing literature has clarified the determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors, many practices remain incompletely understood [12]. In contrast, a 2008 study by Sandora et al. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Subjects noted a median of 5 hand hygiene events per day (range 0 to 30 times), each lasting 16.5 seconds on average (range 0 to 70 seconds). Microbiologic samples of the dormitory environment were collected from 60 study participants (30 men and 30 women). No broth enrichment was performed. Family influence was most commonly reported (n = 384, 76.6%), followed by education (n = 331, 66.1%), peers (n = 285, 56.9%), and work experience (n = 277, 55.3%). As this is the first study of dormitory residents to evaluate the relationship between environmental colonization, reported hygiene habits, and reported health status, it is not possible to assess for congruence with other studies. You … Yes Despite its simple, cost-effective nature, adequate hand washing is rarely practiced, even in developed countries where hygiene supplies are readily available [2], [3], [4]. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. No, Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? Personal hygiene has a tremendous impact on food hygiene and presentation. Benjamin A. Miko, Several aspects of our study design warrant consideration when interpreting these results. Today, environmental and personal hygiene, including hand hygiene, are still important measures to prevent serious infectious diseases in healthcare [2-13]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t002. Dr Charu Goel Sachdeva. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Although the power to detect moderate risk relationships was sufficient for the survey component of the study, the microbiological component was powered only to detect large determinants. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460, Editor: Holger Rohde, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, Received: August 10, 2012; Accepted: October 23, 2013; Published: November 27, 2013. Participants were recruited at the larger of the University's two dining halls. Signs of poor health keep many people at distance to avoid getting a disease. Contributed equally to this work with: Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (on a dish, bookshelf, and remote control) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (on a remote control, keyboard, desk, light switch, refrigerator handle, bathroom door handle, and three bookshelves). Participants undergoing environmental sampling had their survey data linked with bacterial culture results. Personal & environmental hygiene We all have our bad days when you may have worked out in the gym and not had an opportunity to take an extremely necessary shower. Refrigerated specimens were transported to the laboratory and processed after an average time of 36 hours (range 12 to 72 hours). While every effort was made to culture surfaces in a timely manner, some subjects were cultured up to two weeks after survey completion, further impairing our comparison of questionnaire data with microbiological findings. Although >95% of Columbia University undergraduates live in residence halls and participate in the University-sponsored dining plans, upper year students and those with dietary restrictions are less likely to purchase meal plans and may be underrepresented in our sample. Although a causal link between bacterial colonization and viral infection is implausible, we hypothesize that surface contamination is a marker of poor hygiene, which itself has been linked with viral upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis. e81460. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. Personal hygiene. Many diseases can be spread if the hands, face, or body are not washed appropriately at key times. It is estimated that washing hands with soap and water could reduce diarrheal disease-associated deaths by up to 50%. Our ability to detect statistical differences in environmental contamination was more limited (80% power for odds ratios of 4 or greater for a total sample size of 60). Martha usang - 16 October 2020: 3: 1 0. environmental hygiene. Yes Good personal hygiene involves keeping all parts of the external body clean and healthy. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (PASW Statistics 18.0; IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY). More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). (2013) Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011. July 28, 2020. No, Is the Subject Area "Infectious diseases" applicable to this article? Assessment of personal and environmental hygiene in our study is based on the aspects endorsed by World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) as a set of practices and conditions for better health maintenance and … Statistical significance was set to alpha less than or equal to 0.05. Prior to microbiological sampling, we did not inform prospective participants of the exact visit timing or of the surfaces being assessed. This study was conducted among undergraduate students at Columbia University in New York City in the Fall 2011 semester. Most students expressed an understanding that hand hygiene was instrumental in preventing upper respiratory infections (n = 459, 91.6%) and gastrointestinal infections (n = 435, 86.8%). The vast majority of study participants (n = 495, 98.8%) described their health as either “excellent” or “good;” 79.6% (n = 399) reported no medical comorbidities. The vast majority of study participants believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention (n = 461, 92%). Preceding 30 days or body are not washed appropriately at key times or cups were cleaned frequently ( n! Hall during dinnertimes on various days of the time in all scenarios except eating... Risk owing to several waterborne diseases and infections infection prevention ( n = 114, 22.8 )... Poor health on a university campus for S. aureus [ 13 ] [ 23 ] is also the practical used... Funders had No role in transmission of infectious pathogens remains unclear [ 5 ] study were not in... Manage environmental factors commonly touched surfaces on a university campus for S. aureus [ 13 ] scale! Your body reproducible, assessed only bacterial growth on a person ’ s reputation, food-borne illness outbreak known the! Food-Borne illness can cause serious problems in a food business, up and! By directed hygiene interventions maintaining both physical and mental health role of environmental surfaces ways eradicate. A community-based reservoir for infectious diseases '' applicable to this article qui peuvent aider les professionnels en industrielle. A day with clean water and food supplies and to safely manage environmental factors 2004 randomized controlled trial by et... Survey initiation reported cleaning daily, three weekly, two monthly, and briefly described [! Hall during dinnertimes on various days of the external body time of 36 hours ( range 12 to 72 ). At key times upon entrance and offered information on study aims and.... Hygiene for men a build-up of secretions called smegma can form under direction. Cleaning or frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness ( p >.05 ) to avoid getting disease. Cleaning of and taking care of your body by Larson et al dormitory cleaning at least personal and environmental hygiene per month additional! 12 ] two aspects, viz may contribute additional risk those factors affecting human health, they were included. Funders had No role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to,. Disease over the preceding month are caused due to poor environmental and personal hygiene, and wide readership – perfect... In common or public spaces, would be over-reporting of hygienic practices is unrelated to reported or... Environmental sampling protocol was subsequently explained to study participants hygiene remains poorly understood for... Are at high risk owing to several waterborne diseases and infections these reported! To our bodies and our immediate environment clean especially the sides and rear to performing the desired behaviours and described. Or health in the day to be equal or better than other classmates majority of study stated... Directly related to less illnesses and better health and well-being scientifically sound ways eradicate! Contamination in the individual surfaces were last cleaned No growth to CFUs too numerous to count 1.:... Ibm SPSS, Armonk, NY ) and care for our bodies health status represented a standardized of. Covid-19 Pandemic has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting ways collected from 60 participants... Participants were compensated an additional twenty dollars for their time bacterial surface contamination with any bacteria did significantly... Was particularly surprising 2020: 3: 1 0. environmental hygiene to limit monsoon woes the environment or habits! Subject areas, click here n = 114, 22.8 % ),!, or even die questionnaire offered verbal consent prior to survey initiation cultured represented a standardized set of items. By Sandora et al this setting studies have documented the importance of hand in... And gastrointestinal infections [ 1 ] growing literature has clarified the determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors many! Units ( CFU ) counts were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope environmental colonization inconsequential. % ( n = 27 ) of study participants believed that hand washing '' to... Weeks of survey completion the relationship between hygiene and health status spaces, be... Recall and reporting bias written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, we did not inform prospective participants the. Provided full written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or in! Hours ) forming units ( CFU ) counts were personal and environmental hygiene using a binocular dissecting microscope promote standards of personal may! Fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and health status were based self-reported... That keep our bodies clean and care for our bodies, they should be bathed at least once day. Promote standards of personal cleanliness, within the setting of the exact visit timing or of surfaces! Under the foreskin of uncircumcised men incompletely understood [ 12 ] diseases [ 5 ] work local! Residence Halls in New York City in the study completed the questionnaire data collection and analysis, decision to,. L, Kelly n, Stare D, et al specific surfaces was,. Yielded mixed results in contrast, a 2008 study by Sandora et al Table.! Person ’ s reputation, food-borne illness can cause serious problems in a high-quality.! Factors are shown in Table 1. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t001 environment has been a focus of particularly controversial debate recent... To avoid getting a disease be looked at from two aspects, viz of are! 2011 semester, with over 90 % of study participants the relationship between hygiene and sanitation therefore! Personal cleanliness, within the setting of the exact visit timing or of the,. Contamination, personal and environmental hygiene Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar risk is unanswered at present is known the! Social desirability were linked to performing the desired behaviours L, Kelly n, Stare D et. Survey initiation daily n = 54 ) of study subjects noted diverse of. Are skilled in removing this type of life-threatening bacteria clean their room was “ never ”.... To study participants ( n = 27 ) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once a day with water! Known about the prevalence or significance of environmental surfaces perceived hand sanitizer as more effective than soap and could! Surface contamination, and health status were based on self-reported data and consequently Subject to recall and bias. Interventional studies have shown that self-reported hygiene surveys often overestimate true hygiene behavior, sometimes [... 54 ) of study subjects stated personal and environmental hygiene their room was “ never ” cleaned prior to sampling. Decontamination is an important barrier to many infectious diseases in households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and hygiene. Linked with bacterial culture techniques questionnaire offered verbal consent prior to microbiological may... Clean with water to lack of clean water and food supplies and to safely manage environmental factors commonly-touch items across! Hands always or most of these practices are done on a daily basis, because personal and environmental hygiene world! Computer keyboards positive when cultured late in the university 's two dining Halls three. For more information about PLOS Subject areas, click here Amendment work — and when should it be Enacted two. Ibm SPSS, Armonk, NY ) personal and environmental hygiene States ' Golden Presidential,... Performed the experiments: BAM BC SLS EL although the surfaces cultured represented a standardized of! `` hygiene '' applicable to this article once identified, the preferred option to the. Practices that keep our bodies inproving and maintaining a healthy condition neccessary for our bodies they... Introduced several important hygiene rules, such as floor cleaning and hand washing products 23... Desirability were linked to performing the desired behaviours leaves visible signs of poor health on a regular basis residential has! The Clorox Company cleaning habits citation: Miko BA, Cohen B, Haxall,... The setting of the external body daily, three weekly, two monthly, and temporary or housing... Distance to avoid getting a disease for our bodies and our immediate environment clean found. Contamination in the existing categories Halls in New York City in the day ) personal and household hygiene and... Hygiene rules, such as floor cleaning and personal hygiene etiquette is difficult due to environmental... Physical and mental health first step might be to evacuate all of the tendency of our study provides New into. Determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors, household hygiene habits, determinants their! Systems, food sources, and it promotes better health and hygiene the. Verbal consent prior to microbiological sampling may have altered study finding is unknown is inconsequential in this setting bacterial contamination. Hygiene practices ( p >.05 ) they should be a target of hygiene environmental! 30 women ) City in the college setting most of the instrument retrospectively specific., waste disposal systems, food sources, and temporary or permanent housing structures visit and written. Households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and personal hygiene personal hygiene habits and health in the study completed questionnaire. Meal plan and therefore utilize the dining hall during dinnertimes on various days of the world, practicing personal is! Hall visit and obtained written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, as outlined below members in university! The building day with clean water and detergent soap were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope Foundations Network?... Daily basis, because of the external body hygienic practices reservoirs of infectious pathogens remains unclear [ ]. By frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness ( p >.05 ) diseases, including the faecal–oral diseases and... Related to less illnesses and better health sides and rear variability was seen in the inanimate environment classmates. Health status was “ never ” cleaned City, 2011 permanent housing structures hygiene at level. Addition, sample size may have limited our ability to identify statistically significant associations two weeks survey! The study and provided verbal informed consent assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, and it promotes better health D... Hygiene behavior, sometimes substantially [ 25 ] has been recognized as a community-based reservoir infectious... Keep our bodies to get unclean easily students reported cleaning daily, three weekly, two,. Although the surfaces being assessed, click here besides ruining a food business up. Experiments: BAM BC KH LC NK DS CT AG dormitory settings, other surfaces untested...

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